Auto scaling, scaled SQL graphs concluded

July 28, 2009

I wasn't sure I was to go this far. After catching breath the following have been added to Generic, auto scaling, scaled SQL graphs, and these will conclude my current hacks:

  • Displaying X-axis min/max values.
  • Support for Y-axis values precision.
  • Support for pre-defined scale range.

The addition of the above makes for presentable, usable graphs. See also sample graphs at the end of this post.

Step 8: adding X-axis values

I add minimum/maximum X-scale values to the graph. What was just ordering_column before, now turns to be the x in the y = f(x) function.

SELECT
  y_scale,
  horizontal_bar
  FROM
  (
  SELECT
    @row_number := @row_number+1,
    CASE @row_number
      WHEN 1 THEN ROUND(max_value)
      WHEN (@graph_rows+1)/2 THEN ROUND((max_value+min_value)/2)
      WHEN @graph_rows THEN ROUND(min_value)
      ELSE '~'
    END AS y_scale,
    horizontal_bar,
    @bar_length := IFNULL(@bar_length, CHAR_LENGTH(horizontal_bar))
  FROM
    (SELECT @row_number := 0) AS select_row
    INNER JOIN
    (
    SELECT
      min_value,
      max_value,
      value_column,
      GROUP_CONCAT(SUBSTRING(graph_bar, tinyint_asc.value, 1) ORDER BY ordering_column SEPARATOR '') AS horizontal_bar
    FROM
      (SELECT @row_number := 0) AS select_row,
      tinyint_asc
    INNER JOIN (
      SELECT
        ordering_column,
        @min_value AS min_value,
        @max_value AS max_value,
        value_column,
        @scaled_value := CONVERT((value_column-@min_value)*(@graph_rows-1)/(@max_value-@min_value), UNSIGNED) AS scaled_value,
        CONCAT(REPEAT('-',@scaled_value),'#',REPEAT('-',(@graph_rows-1)-@scaled_value)) AS graph_bar
      FROM
        (
        SELECT
          @min_value := LEAST(IFNULL(@min_value, value_column), value_column) AS min_value,
          @max_value := GREATEST(IFNULL(@max_value, value_column), value_column) AS max_value,
          @min_range := LEAST(IFNULL(@min_range, ordering_column), ordering_column) AS min_range,
          @max_range := GREATEST(IFNULL(@max_range, ordering_column), ordering_column) AS max_range,
          ordering_column,
          value_column
        FROM
          (
            SELECT id AS ordering_column, val AS value_column
            FROM sample_values LIMIT 100
          ) AS value_select,
          (SELECT @min_value := NULL) AS select_min,
          (SELECT @max_value := NULL) AS select_max,
          (SELECT @min_range := NULL) AS select_min_range,
          (SELECT @max_range := NULL) AS select_max_range,
          (SELECT @bar_length := NULL) AS select_bar_length,
          (SELECT @graph_rows := 15) AS select_graph_rows
        ) AS select_range
      ) AS select_vertical
    WHERE
      tinyint_asc.value BETWEEN 1 AND CHAR_LENGTH(graph_bar)
    GROUP BY
      tinyint_asc.value
    ORDER BY
      tinyint_asc.value DESC
    ) AS select_horizontal
  ) AS select_horizontal_untitled
UNION ALL
SELECT '', CONCAT('v', REPEAT(':', @bar_length-2), 'v')
UNION ALL
SELECT '', CONCAT(@min_range, REPEAT(' ', @bar_length-CHAR_LENGTH(@min_range)-CHAR_LENGTH(@max_range)), @max_range)
;
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                                       |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2       | ------------########-------------------------------------------------------########----------------- |
| ~       | ----------##--------###-------------------------------------------------###--------###-------------- |
| ~       | -------###-------------##---------------------------------------------##--------------##------------ |
| ~       | ------#------------------##------------------------------------------#------------------##---------- |
| ~       | ----##---------------------#---------------------------------------##---------------------#--------- |
| ~       | ---#------------------------##-----------------------------------##------------------------##------- |
| ~       | -##---------------------------#---------------------------------#----------------------------#------ |
| 1       | #------------------------------##------------------------------#------------------------------#----- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------#---------------------------##--------------------------------##--- |
| ~       | ----------------------------------##------------------------#------------------------------------#-- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------#---------------------##--------------------------------------## |
| ~       | -------------------------------------##-----------------##------------------------------------------ |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------##-------------##-------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | -----------------------------------------###-------###---------------------------------------------- |
| 0       | --------------------------------------------#######------------------------------------------------- |
|         | v::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 0                                                                                                 99 |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

The X-axis range is [0..99], displayed below. The code does not limit us to INTEGER. We may as well have FLOAT, DATE, TIMESTAMP etc. (examples follow).

Step 9: adding precision

The 0,1,2 Y-axis values play nicely here. But if my generic query is:

SELECT id AS ordering_column, val/3 AS value_column FROM sample_values LIMIT 100

The resulting graph looks like:

+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                                       |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1       | ------------#########------------------------------------------------------#########---------------- |
| ~       | --------####---------###-----------------------------------------------####---------###------------- |
| ~       | ------##----------------###------------------------------------------##----------------###---------- |
| ~       | ----##---------------------##-------------------------------------###---------------------##-------- |
| ~       | -###-------------------------##---------------------------------##--------------------------##------ |
| 0       | #------------------------------##-----------------------------##------------------------------##---- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------##-------------------------##----------------------------------##-- |
| ~       | -----------------------------------##---------------------##--------------------------------------## |
| ~       | -------------------------------------###----------------##------------------------------------------ |
| ~       | ----------------------------------------###---------####-------------------------------------------- |
| 0       | -------------------------------------------#########------------------------------------------------ |
|         | v::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 0                                                                                                 99 |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

And the 0,0,1 values are completely inappropriate. We will now introduce precision:

SELECT
  y_scale,
  horizontal_bar
  FROM
  (
  SELECT
    @row_number := @row_number+1,
    CASE @row_number
      WHEN 1 THEN ROUND(max_value * POW(10, @value_precision))/POW(10, @value_precision)
      WHEN (@graph_rows+1)/2 THEN ROUND((max_value+min_value)*POW(10, @value_precision)/2)/POW(10, @value_precision)
      WHEN @graph_rows THEN ROUND(min_value*POW(10, @value_precision))/POW(10, @value_precision)
      ELSE '~'
    END AS y_scale,
    horizontal_bar,
    @bar_length := IFNULL(@bar_length, CHAR_LENGTH(horizontal_bar))
  FROM
    (SELECT @row_number := 0) AS select_row
    INNER JOIN
    (
    SELECT
      min_value,
      max_value,
      value_column,
      GROUP_CONCAT(SUBSTRING(graph_bar, tinyint_asc.value, 1) ORDER BY ordering_column SEPARATOR '') AS horizontal_bar
    FROM
      (SELECT @row_number := 0) AS select_row,
      tinyint_asc
    INNER JOIN (
      SELECT
        ordering_column,
        @min_value AS min_value,
        @max_value AS max_value,
        value_column,
        @scaled_value := CONVERT((value_column-@min_value)*(@graph_rows-1)/(@max_value-@min_value), UNSIGNED) AS scaled_value,
        CONCAT(REPEAT('-',@scaled_value),'#',REPEAT('-',(@graph_rows-1)-@scaled_value)) AS graph_bar
      FROM
        (
        SELECT
          @min_value := LEAST(IFNULL(@min_value, value_column), value_column) AS min_value,
          @max_value := GREATEST(IFNULL(@max_value, value_column), value_column) AS max_value,
          @min_range := LEAST(IFNULL(@min_range, ordering_column), ordering_column) AS min_range,
          @max_range := GREATEST(IFNULL(@max_range, ordering_column), ordering_column) AS max_range,
          ordering_column,
          value_column
        FROM
          (
            SELECT id AS ordering_column, val/3 AS value_column
            FROM sample_values LIMIT 100
          ) AS value_select,
          (SELECT @min_value := NULL) AS select_min,
          (SELECT @max_value := NULL) AS select_max,
          (SELECT @min_range := NULL) AS select_min_range,
          (SELECT @max_range := NULL) AS select_max_range,
          (SELECT @bar_length := NULL) AS select_bar_length,
          (SELECT @value_precision := 2) AS select_value_precision,
          (SELECT @graph_rows := 15) AS select_graph_rows
        ) AS select_range
      ) AS select_vertical
    WHERE
      tinyint_asc.value BETWEEN 1 AND CHAR_LENGTH(graph_bar)
    GROUP BY
      tinyint_asc.value
    ORDER BY
      tinyint_asc.value DESC
    ) AS select_horizontal
  ) AS select_horizontal_untitled
UNION ALL
SELECT '', CONCAT('v', REPEAT(':', @bar_length-2), 'v')
UNION ALL
SELECT '', CONCAT(@min_range, REPEAT(' ', @bar_length-CHAR_LENGTH(@min_range)-CHAR_LENGTH(@max_range)), @max_range)
;
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                                       |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 0.67    | ------------########-------------------------------------------------------########----------------- |
| ~       | ----------##--------###-------------------------------------------------###--------###-------------- |
| ~       | -------###-------------##---------------------------------------------##--------------##------------ |
| ~       | ------#------------------##------------------------------------------#------------------##---------- |
| ~       | ----##---------------------#---------------------------------------##---------------------#--------- |
| ~       | ---#------------------------##-----------------------------------##------------------------##------- |
| ~       | -##---------------------------#---------------------------------#----------------------------#------ |
| 0.33    | #------------------------------##------------------------------#------------------------------#----- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------#---------------------------##--------------------------------##--- |
| ~       | ----------------------------------##------------------------#------------------------------------#-- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------#---------------------##--------------------------------------## |
| ~       | -------------------------------------##-----------------##------------------------------------------ |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------##-------------##-------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | -----------------------------------------###-------###---------------------------------------------- |
| 0       | --------------------------------------------#######------------------------------------------------- |
|         | v::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 0                                                                                                 99 |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Watch the 0.33, 0.67 values generated here. This is much better.

Step 10: setting fixed scale range

When we compare two graphs, it's best if they are scaled the same way. So far, our graphs have scaled automatically according to min/max values. What we add now is a way to predefine the range. For example, dealing with per-cent values, I may always wish to scale [0..100], regardless of min/max values.

The code below defines a scale of [-1, 1]. It automatically extends if the range is actually insufficient, so it's safe to use. Let's see the same last graph again:

SELECT
  y_scale,
  horizontal_bar
  FROM
  (
  SELECT
    @row_number := @row_number+1,
    CASE @row_number
      WHEN 1 THEN ROUND(max_value * POW(10, @value_precision))/POW(10, @value_precision)
      WHEN (@graph_rows+1)/2 THEN ROUND((max_value+min_value)*POW(10, @value_precision)/2)/POW(10, @value_precision)
      WHEN @graph_rows THEN ROUND(min_value*POW(10, @value_precision))/POW(10, @value_precision)
      ELSE '~'
    END AS y_scale,
    horizontal_bar,
    @bar_length := IFNULL(@bar_length, CHAR_LENGTH(horizontal_bar))
  FROM
    (SELECT @row_number := 0) AS select_row
    INNER JOIN
    (
    SELECT
      min_value,
      max_value,
      value_column,
      GROUP_CONCAT(SUBSTRING(graph_bar, tinyint_asc.value, 1) ORDER BY ordering_column SEPARATOR '') AS horizontal_bar
    FROM
      (SELECT @row_number := 0) AS select_row,
      tinyint_asc
    INNER JOIN (
      SELECT
        ordering_column,
        @min_value AS min_value,
        @max_value AS max_value,
        value_column,
        @scaled_value := CONVERT((value_column-@min_value)*(@graph_rows-1)/(@max_value-@min_value), UNSIGNED) AS scaled_value,
        CONCAT(REPEAT('-',@scaled_value),'#',REPEAT('-',(@graph_rows-1)-@scaled_value)) AS graph_bar
      FROM
        (
        SELECT
          @min_value := LEAST(IFNULL(@min_scale_value, value_column), IFNULL(@min_value, value_column), value_column) AS min_value,
          @max_value := GREATEST(IFNULL(@max_scale_value, value_column), IFNULL(@max_value, value_column), value_column) AS max_value,
          @min_range := LEAST(IFNULL(@min_range, ordering_column), ordering_column) AS min_range,
          @max_range := GREATEST(IFNULL(@max_range, ordering_column), ordering_column) AS max_range,
          ordering_column,
          value_column
        FROM
          (
            SELECT id AS ordering_column, val/3 AS value_column FROM sample_values LIMIT 100
          ) AS value_select,
          (SELECT @min_value := NULL) AS select_min,
          (SELECT @max_value := NULL) AS select_max,
          (SELECT @min_range := NULL) AS select_min_range,
          (SELECT @max_range := NULL) AS select_max_range,
          (SELECT @bar_length := NULL) AS select_bar_length,
          (SELECT @min_scale_value := -1) AS select_min_scale,
          (SELECT @max_scale_value := 1) AS select_max_scale,
          (SELECT @value_precision := 2) AS select_value_precision,
          (SELECT @graph_rows := 15) AS select_graph_rows
        ) AS select_range
      ) AS select_vertical
    WHERE
      tinyint_asc.value BETWEEN 1 AND CHAR_LENGTH(graph_bar)
    GROUP BY
      tinyint_asc.value
    ORDER BY
      tinyint_asc.value DESC
    ) AS select_horizontal
  ) AS select_horizontal_untitled
UNION ALL
SELECT '', CONCAT('v', REPEAT(':', @bar_length-2), 'v')
UNION ALL
SELECT '', CONCAT(@min_range, REPEAT(' ', @bar_length-CHAR_LENGTH(@min_range)-CHAR_LENGTH(@max_range)), @max_range)
;
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                                       |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ------------########-------------------------------------------------------########----------------- |
| ~       | ------######--------#######------------------------------------------######--------#######---------- |
| ~       | -#####---------------------####---------------------------------#####---------------------####------ |
| ~       | #------------------------------#####------------------------####------------------------------####-- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------#####-------------######--------------------------------------## |
| 0       | -----------------------------------------#############---------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| -1      | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
|         | v::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 0                                                                                                 99 |
+---------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Values are still in range [0..0.667], but are presented on a wider scale.

Showcase

Here are some nice graphs generated, to show off.

+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                   |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 14.17   | ----------------------------------------------------------------------###------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------------#---#------ |
| ~       | --------------------------------------------------------------------#-----#----- |
| ~       | -------------------------------------------------------##----------------------- |
| ~       | -----------------------------------------------------##--#---------#-------#---- |
| ~       | ----------------------------------------------------#-----#--------------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------###-----------------#------#------------- |
| 7.09    | -------------------------------------##---#--------#------------------------#--- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------#------#----------------#------------------- |
| ~       | -----------------------####--------#--------#-----#--------------#-----------#-- |
| ~       | ---------------------##----#-----------------#---#-----------#------------------ |
| ~       | --------------------#-------##----#-----------------------------#--------------- |
| ~       | --------#####-----##----------#--#------------#-#-------------#---------------#- |
| ~       | ----####-----##--#-------------##----------------------------------------------# |
| 0       | ####-----------##------------------------------#---------------#---------------- |
|         | v::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 2009-07-25 21:43:27                                          2009-07-29 06:02:27 |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                  |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 0.99    | ##----------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | --##--------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ----#-------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | -----##------------------------------------------------------------------------ |
| ~       | -------#----------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | --------#---------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ---------#--------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| 0.39    | ----------#-------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | -----------#------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ------------#------------------------------------------------------------------ |
| ~       | -------------#--------------------########------------------------------------- |
| ~       | --------------#----------------###--------#####---------------################- |
| ~       | ---------------##-----------###----------------#####----######----------------# |
| ~       | -----------------##------###------------------------####----------------------- |
| -0.22   | -------------------######------------------------------------------------------ |
|         | v:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 2009-07-25 21:43:27                                         2009-07-29 06:02:27 |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                  |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| -0      | --------------------######################------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ------------########----------------------#######--------------------------#### |
| ~       | --------####-------------------------------------#####-----------------####---- |
| ~       | ------##----------------------------------------------##------------###-------- |
| ~       | ----##--------------------------------------------------##---------#----------- |
| ~       | ---#------------------------------------------------------#------##------------ |
| ~       | --#--------------------------------------------------------#------------------- |
| -2.39   | -#----------------------------------------------------------#---#-------------- |
| ~       | ---------------------------------------------------------------#--------------- |
| ~       | #------------------------------------------------------------#----------------- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- |
| -4.78   | --------------------------------------------------------------#---------------- |
|         | v:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 0                                                                          3.95 |
+---------+---------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| y_scale | horizontal_bar                                                                   |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 110.82  | ---------------------------------------------------oooooo----------------------- |
| ~       | ------------------------------------------------ooooooooooo--------------------- |
| ~       | ----------------------------------------------oooooooooooooo-------------------- |
| ~       | --------------------------------------------oooooooooooooooooo------------------ |
| ~       | ----------------------------------oooo----ooooooooooooooooooooo----------------- |
| ~       | o------------------------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo---------------- |
| ~       | o----------------------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo---------------- |
| ~       | oo--------------------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo--------------- |
| ~       | oo-------------------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo-------------- |
| ~       | ooo-----------------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo------------- |
| ~       | oooo--------------------oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo------------ |
| ~       | oooo-------------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo------------ |
| 85.93   | ooooo-----------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo----------- |
| ~       | oooooo---------------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo---------- |
| ~       | ooooooo-------------oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo---------- |
| ~       | oooooooo-----------oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo--------- |
| ~       | ooooooooo--------ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo-------- |
| ~       | ooooooooooo----oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo------- |
| ~       | ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo------- |
| ~       | oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo------ |
| ~       | ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo----- |
| ~       | oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo---- |
| ~       | ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo--- |
| ~       | oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo-- |
| 61.04   | oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo |
|         | v::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::v |
|         | 93                                                                           172 |
+---------+----------------------------------------------------------------------------------+

Why?

Why go for all this trouble? Isn't this nothing but a cool hack?

Is this stuff useful? Practical?

I have some agenda with this, which I'll be happy to share when comes into being. I think there are very practical uses for SQL-based graphs. I'm sure many readers can think of interesting uses, other than the ones I have in mind.

Conclusion

There are many more possibilities and featured which can be built into the graphs. I'm going to stop here, before this becomes too picky. I hope I have shown that some very nice graphs can be produced with SQL alone.

tags: ,
posted in MySQL by shlomi

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8 Comments to "Auto scaling, scaled SQL graphs concluded"

  1. Generic, auto scaling, scaled SQL graphs | code.openark.org wrote:

    [...] Auto scaling, scaled SQL graphs concluded [...]

  2. Jeremy Zawodny wrote:

    That is both crazy and awesome. I like it. :-)

  3. Jeremy Cole wrote:

    You have gone too far, Shlomi.... TOO FAR.

    Very cool. I've done plenty of SQL based graphs, but never as cool or complex as yours. :)

    Regards,

    Jeremy

  4. Andrew Stevens wrote:

    This is brilliant

  5. shlomi wrote:

    @Jeremy Z. - thanks, I'm glad you like it!

    @Jeremy C. - Yes, I agree. I did not include the parts where I do some nice styling to the graph. I did catch myself in time to slap myself and go do something more useful :D

    @Andrew - thank you!

  6. Jan Kneschke wrote:

    Now combine this with a SQL-REST interface ... who needs google-charts anymore ?

  7. SQL multi line chart | code.openark.org wrote:

    [...] I’ve already presented with how to create line charts in Auto scaling, scaled SQL graphs concluded, we will concentrate on how to present a single chart column, which includes multiple [...]

  8. New and noteworthy in mycheckpoint (rev. 57) | code.openark.org wrote:

    [...] you thought I was going over the edge in Auto scaling, scaled SQL graphs concluded or SQL pie chart, allow me to assure you: generation of the above charts using SQL & views is [...]

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