Following up and improving on Solving the Facebook-OSC non-atomic table swap problem, we present a better, safe solution.
Quick, quickest recap:
We are working on a triggerless online schema migration solution. It is based on an asynchronous approach, similarly to the FB osc and as opposed to the synchronous solution as used by pt-online-schema-change.
We asynchronously synchronize (is that even a valid statement?) between some table tbl and a ghost table ghost, and at some time we want to cut-over: swap the two; kick out tbl and put ghost in its place and under its name.
However, we cannot use the single statement rename tbl to tbl_old, ghost to tbl, because we use the asynchronous approach, where at the time we lock tbl for writes, we still have some events we need to process and apply onto ghost before swapping the two.
And MySQL does not allow a lock tables tbl write; ... ; rename tbl to tbl_old, ghost to tbl.
In Solving the Facebook-OSC non-atomic table swap problem we suggested a way that works, unless when it doesn't work. Read the caveat at the end of the post. Premature death of a connection that participates in the algorithm causes a chain reaction that leads to the premature execution of the rename statement, potentially before we've applied those remaining events. This leads to data inconsistency between the old table and the new table, and is unacceptable.
To that effect, we were more inclined to go with the Facebook solution, which makes a two-step: lock tables tbl write; alter table tbl rename to tbl_old; ... ; alter table ghost rename to tbl;
This two-step solution is guaranteed not to have data inconsistency. Alas, it also implies an outage. There's a brief moment, in between the two renames, and during that time where we apply those last changes, where the table tbl is simply not there.
Not all applications will fail gracefully on such a scenario. Continue Reading »